•Characteristics of Play
•Play is intrinsically motivated
•Play is freely chosen
•Play is pleasurable and enjoyable
•Play is active
•Play is engaging
•Play allows time
•Play is self oriented rather than object oriented
Purposes of Play
–Play fosters physical development.
–Outdoor play connects children to nature and their environment.
–Play fosters physical development.
–Play enhances social development.
–Play contains rich emotional values.
–Play develops the creative aspect of the child’s personality.
–Play is deeply satisfying to children.
•Developmental Levels of Social Play Parten 1932
•The first two categories are considered to be non play behavior
•The last three categories are indicators of social participation
•The child is not playing but occupies herself with watching anything that happens to be of momentary interest.
•The child spends most of her time watching the other children play.
•She/he often talks to the children being observed, asks questions or give suggestions, but does not overtly enter into the play.
•The child plays alone and independently with toys that are different from those used by the children within speaking distance.
• He makes no effort to get close to other children.
•He pursues his own activity without reference to what others are doing.
•Two or more children playing near each other, but not talking with each other.
•The child plays with toys that are similar to those of other children, but he/she plays independently.
•Children in parallel play can be side by side doing the exact same activity but they will not enter into the other’s personal space.
•Two or more children playing with the same or similar toys
but not involved in the identical activity.
•There is borrowing and loaning of play materials
•The children may talk with each other but not work together to create something.
•The child plays in a group that is organized for the purpose of making some material product, striving to attain some competitive goal, dramatizing situations of adult and group life, or playing formal games.
Games with rules
§Organized, competitive games are developmentally inappropriate as well as uncreative for preschool-aged children.
§Elementary school-aged children learn what rules are, how to follow them, and the consequences when rules are not followed.
•Activity that has some purpose or goal.
•Example pouring water to fill a bucket.
•Develops into Dramatic play
•Dramatic play permits children to fit the reality of the world into their own interests and knowledge.
•One of the purest forms of symbolic thought available to young children, dramatic play contributes strongly to the intellectual development of children (Piaget, 1962).
•Elements of Drama in the Early Childhood Classroom
•Dramatic play includes role-playing, puppetry, and fantasy play. It does not require interaction with another.
•Socio-dramatic play is dramatic play with the additional component of social interaction with either a peer or teacher (Mayesky, 1988; Smilansky, 1968).
•Planning and evaluating occurs in creative dramatics (Chambers, 1970, 1977)
•Creative dramatics involves spontaneous, creative play.
•It is structured and incorporates the problem solving skills of planning and evaluation.
•Children frequently reenact a scene or a story.
•Supportive Roles/ Stage manager
•Essential elements of play are time, space, equipments and materials.
•Involves more than setting out materials for play.
•We need to select and organize those materials, space and equipment so that they suggest play is meaningful.
•When we observe and assess carefully we learn about what children might need and how we can support their play.
•Mediator & Protector
•As Mediator you need to help children to work out conflicts and concerns when a neutral third party is needed.
•Mediators do not intervene when participants can handle the problem.
•Children’s play is more productive when they feel safe from harm and relatively free from interference.
•As a protector you need to keep a balance between guidelines and excessive control.
• Your participation gives the children a strong message that play is important and is a valuable activity.
•Children learn new play behaviors from observing you.
•As a play tutor you will demonstrate or model a missing skill until the child begins using that skill in spontaneous play situations.