PROFILE OF AN INFANT
- WIC program provides food supplements- reducing the incidence of prenatal, infant and child malnutrition
THE FIRST SIX MONTHS
The infants nutritional needs can be met just by breast milk or formula.
The full-term infant is born with storage of iron and vitamin A (6 moths)
The Teacher and the Breastfeeding Family
- Breast milk may be refrigerated in a sterile container for up to 24 hours or may be frozen for 2 weeks
- Wash hands before- avoid touching inside bottle or caps
- Have the mother label containers with date – used the old milk first
- If milk need to be stored for more than 24 hours-frozen
The Teacher and the Formula Fed Infant
The formula is prepared to closely resemble breast milk composition relative to the amount of protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Infant formula may be made from cow’s milk, soy or meat products.
Preparation of formula
- SANITATION: handwashing prior mixing formula and aseptic procedures.
- ACCURASY: Follow the directions, to assure the provision of needed calories and nutrients. Adding too much water results in DILUTED formula that cannot provide adequate daily nutrients.Adding too little water results in “over-rich” formula that can result in digestive problems.
- NEVER add HONEY – leads to production of a toxin that can be life-threatening.
FEEDING TIME FOR THE INFANT
- How frequently a baby is fed is determined by the parents, infant and the doctor.
- For the first 4 months it is best to feed an infant of demand.
- The infant is getting enough formula when he/she wets 6 diapers a day
- NEVER WARM BOTTLE IN THE MICROWAVE
- Feeding should be relaxed including talking time- bonding.
- Do not rush the infant allow 2o minutes per feeding
- Gas and distention caused by swallow air
- Burp the infant 2-3 times during each feeding.
- Offer water if baby appears hungry soon after feeding
Breast-feed infant – vitamin D supplement
Fluoride- birth reduce tooth decay 50-60%
INTRODUCING SEMI-SOLID (PUREED) FOODS
- Collaborative effort between parents, teachers and doctors
- Introduced to the semi-solid food by 5 or 6 months
- The infant its not developmentally or physiological ready before 5 months
- Developmental readiness 4-5 months the infant shows interest in touching, holding and tasting objects-food and otherwise. At this age baby can turn his head away
- Physiological readiness 5-6 months the infants digestive system has developed the capacity to digest complex carbohydrates and proteins other than milk protein. By 7 months the infant’s kidneys are sufficiently develop to handle the nitrogen-containing waste.
- New foods should be introduce slowly and individually
- 5-6 monthsiron-enriched cereals
- 7-9 monthsvegetables and fruits
- 7-9 monthsmeat or meat substitutes
COMMON FEDDING CONCERNS
The most common chronic condition-affecting infants are allergies. Allergic response to foods: runny nose, diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal pain, hive, and eczema. If the reactions seem to be linked with a specific food- stop
VOMOTING AND DIARRHEA
- Food allergies or food sensitivities
- Feeding food that baby is not ready for
The primary concern is to replace fluid and Electrolytes that have been lost. The child with diarrhea should receive 3 ounces of liquid per pound of body weight.
Inadequate iron intake can result in low-hemoglobin type anemia that may delay the growth process.
Babies who are allow to go to sleep with a bottle in their mouth-tooth decay-due to sugar in milk, juice and breast milk
Propping the bottle so the infant can lie on the back and feed without been held.
CHOKING due to unsupervised feedings
TEETHING 6 month of age- can be stressful
CONSTIPATION infant who has difficulty with infrequent hard bowel movements- increase amount of water
OBESITY results when energy intake exceeds an infant’s need for energy for growth, maintenance, and activity.