Fallacies in Argument
Appealing to Pity
This fallacy is implemented by moving other through pity.
Appealing to Prejudice
This fallacy is famed in inflammatory language to distract attention from whether the case at hand is reasonable and well informed. Racist, sexist, classist, and homophobic language can also be used to incite a crowd.
Appealing to Tradition
Although we can learn from the past and often benefit from honoring tradition, we can seldom make decisions based on tradition alone.
Arguing by Analogy
An analogy is a comparison that works on more than one level, and it is possible to use analogy effectively when reasoning inductively. When arguing from analogy, it is important to remember that you are speculating.
Attacking the Character Opponents
If you make personal attacks on opponents while ignoring what they have to say or distracting attention from the issue. In other words, arguing through indulging in personal attacks.
Attributing Guilt by Association
Nothing specific has been argued, but a negative association has been either created or suggested through hints or innuendos.
Begging the Question
This fallacy begins with a premise that is acceptable only to anyone who will agree with the conclusion that is subsequently reached.
Equivocating is the use of vague, abstract or ambiguous language in order to mislead an audience. Terms like, freedom, law, justice and real all fall under this fallacy.
Ignoring the Question
Very often someone states, I am glad that you asked that question and then promptly begins to talk about something else - this is ignoring the question.
Jumping to Conclusions
This fallacy is so common that it has become a cliché. It means that the conclusion in question has not been supported by an adequate amount of evidence
Opposing the Straw Man
Arguers are sometimes tempted to pretend that they are responding to the views of the opponents when they are only setting up a type of artificial opposition which they can easily refute.
Presenting a False Dilemma
A speaker poses a choice between two alternatives while overlooking other possibilities and implies that other possibilities do not exist.
Reasoning that does not follow
This fallacy describes a conclusion that does not follow logically from an explanation.
Sliding Down a Slippery Slope
One step will inevitably lead to an undesirable step. For example, legalized Abortion will lead to euthanasia or censoring pornography will lead to the end of freedom of the press.