Be sure to read all of the prefatory material for “poets in context” (Hughes, Dickinson, Frost)
Langston Hughes "Dream Deferred"/”Harlem"- jazz prose/open verse closed from the poem, historical context, racial art, imagery, diction, purpose.
- the free verse is a way for Hughes to release himself from the oppression of his times (be sure to contrast with how a poem in form/closed would disallow this, and why). freedom in his thoughts but not his life as an African American man of that day.
- the historical context is the racial protest of the irony and hypocrisy of the American dream and how some may obtain it and others may not.
Emily Dickinson “[After a great pain, a formal feeling comes]”- purpose capitalization, dashes, imagery, diction, symbolism, slant rhyme,personification
- rhythm relfected hymns of her day.
- “He” is a reference to Jesus
- The capitalizations articulate a state of mind and draws our attention to that state of mind. it makes us think about the way the way she feels as opposed to the pain in general. describe the agony. Zeroes in on the agony. Makes characters of the “Nerves,” “Quartz,” etc.
- dashes force us to slow down and look in to the interior of the poem. forms of caesura in the last line especially. talk about a particular pause. But how are dashes different from capitalizing to show emphasis? Be sure to make a distinction.
- stupor means out of it J
- imperfect rhyme shows that there is a disconnect. somethign isnt as it should be. Disharmony. Yes, like flat notes in music, which are used in sad songs, melancholy—something is out of joint. So why does Dickinson use that in some places? And not in others?
Robert Frost, "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening": diction, rhyme scheme, personification, imagery, purpose, theme, rhythm, symbolism
- written in iambic tetrameter, (4 feet per line)
"My Papa's Waltz": father son relationship, diction, imagery, waltz, rhyme, rhythm, syntax, nostalgia poem
- written in trimeter ( 3 feet per line)
"Those Winter Sundays": blank verse (un rhymed iambic pentameter), sonnet, purpose, tone
- The poem tells a son recollecting a father's unconditional love for his family which was not then understood.
"Thou art indeed a just, Lord":
- imperfect Italian sonnet (abba abba cdcdcd). iambic pentameter—all sonnets are written in this.
other- understanding rhyme and meter (p.556-559)
review Caesura - pause in the middle of a line
iambic- unstressed then stressed—rising foot.
blank verse- usually iambic pentameter, but NO rhyme. Shakespeare wrote most of his plays in this. He popularized blank verse.
Free verse: no mind paid to rhyme scheme or rhythm, except as dictated by the internal order of the poem—very common in post-nineteenth century/”modern” poetry.
ending in meter- is the number of feet per line. (know up to 6)
know trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter.
Meter- usually 2 sylablles/beats. sometimes 3.
example of iambic tetrameter is in robert frost "stopping by the woods on a snowy evening"
find a purpose for all six poems studied in class—all details, literary devices, etc, should support that purpose. With the purpose include a subject and a verb. What is the author DOING?
The poet, in “Stopping by Woods…” reveals to readers the seductiveness of darkness, especially suicide, when death has stolen loved ones, but that that seductiveness can be averted if we remember those to whom we are responsible, and that it is not in our duty to given in to death’s whims.